Tung-Hai Algal Lab (THAL) Culture Collection

This is the list of the culture collection of Cyanidiales and other microalgae isolated from different geothermal areas in the West Pacific Island Chain (the first chain). Over the course of our experiments, we often encountered the mixed contamination issue (i.e., the mixture of two different algal species or strains), instead of fungi and bacteria. One of the reasons might be due to the adhesion of two mixed strains only using a plate streaking isolation procedure (the initial isolation). Thus, culture strains from the initial isolation were further purified by a plate streaking isolation followed by a serial dilution (the first time purification). After the purification, a single colony was picked and transferred to the sloped agar in the test tube as the long-term culture storage. After every physiological experiment, we washed the purified strain from the test tube and repeated the abovementioned isolation process (the second time purification and so on). For those obtained from other culture centers, we implemented the same procedure. After every purification (e.g., the initial isolation, the first time purification, and so on), we also molecularly barcoded their identity using rbcL to make sure that the target strain is not contaminated. For the purification procedure described above, we conducted all the purification process for each strain at a time in a laminar flow chamber treated with 70% EtOH and overnight UV light (one working day one strain procedure). By doing so, we make sure that the cultured strain is pure in terms of single algal species (i.e., isogenic strain) without any contamination of other algae, fungi, and bacteria.

Relevant Publications:

  • Cho YL, Lee YC, Hsu LC, Wang CC, Chen PC, Liu SL, Teah HY, Liu YT*, Tzou YM*. 2020. Molecular mechanisms for Pb removal by Cyanidiales: a potential biomaterial applied in thermo-acidic conditions. Chemical Engineering Journal (In Press) (THAL066, NIES551, NIES3377)
  • Liu SL, Chiang YR, Yoon HS, Fu HY*. 2020. Comparative genome analysis reveals Cyanidiococcus gen. nov., a new extremophilic algal genus sister to Cyanidioschyzon (Cyanidioschyzonaceae, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology (In Press). (THAL066; NIES-4390)
  • Lin WJ, Ho HC, Chu SC, Chou JY. 2020 Effects of auxin derivatives on phenotypic plasticity and stress tolerance in five species of the green alga Desmodesmus (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). Peer J  8: e8623. (JYC037-JYC045; THAL106-THAL114)
  • Fu HY, Liu SL, Chiang YR. 2020. Biosynthesis of ascorbate acid as a glucose-induced photoprotective process in the extremophilic red alga Galdieria partita. Frontiers in Microbiology 10: 3005. (THAL043)
  • Hsieh CJ, Zhan SH, Liao CP, Tang SL, Wang LC, Watanabe T, Geraldino PJ, Liu SL. 2018. The effects of contemporary selection and dispersal limitation on the community assembly of acidophilic microalgae. Journal of Phycology 54: 720-733. (Environmental Sample Collection)
  • Hsieh CJ, Zhan SH, Lin YC, Tang SL, Liu SL. 2015. Analysis of rbcL sequences reveals the global biodiversity, community structure, and biogeographical pattern of thermoacidophilic red algae (Cyanidiales). Journal of Phycology 51: 682-694.  (Environmental Sample Collection)

I. Isolated or maintained strains in the THAL culture collection

  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL001
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: DiReGu, Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: stream (Temp = no measurement; pH = no measurement)
  • Galdieria sulphuraria
    Strain: THAL003
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: DiReGu, Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: stream (Temp = no measurement; pH = no measurement)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL010
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: MaCao, Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: stream (Temp = 38.7℃; pH = 3.82)
  • Galdieria sulphuraria
    Strain: THAL011
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: Tengchong , China
    Microhabitat: endolithic (Temp = 45.2℃; pH = 2.12)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL017
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Pinus, Indonesia
    Microhabitat: stream (Temp = 37.0℃; pH = 2.65)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL018
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Bukit Kaish, Indonesia
    Microhabitat: endolithic (Temp = 26.7℃; pH = 0.4)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL019
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Zano Pasuh, Indonesia
    Microhabitat: clay sulfur deposit soil (Temp = 24.8℃; pH = 0.4)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL022
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Valencia, Philippines
    Microhabitat: hypolithic (Temp = 39.0℃; pH = 0.4)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL023
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: Fukenoyu, Japan
    Microhabitat: river (Temp = 35.0℃; pH = 1.6)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL024
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Fukenoyu, Japan
    Microhabitat: river (Temp = 35.0℃; pH = 1.6)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL025
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: Dauwin, Philippines
    Microhabitat: stream (Temp = 48.0 ℃; pH = 1.97)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL028
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Danav Linow, Indonesia
    Microhabitat: Epilithic clay sulfur deposit (Temp = 29.5℃; pH = 0.4)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL029
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Zano Pasuh, Indonesia
    Microhabitat: Endolithic sulfur crystal rock (Temp = 26.6℃; pH = 2.8)
  • Galdieria sulphuraria
    Strain: THAL030
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: GengZiPing, Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: stream (Temp = 45.5℃; pH = 2.5)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL033
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: GengZiPing, Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: stream (Temp = 39.0℃; pH = 2.57)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL034
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: SiHuangPing, Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: epilithic (Temp = no measurement; pH = no measurement)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL036
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: DaYouKen, Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: stream (Temp = 43.4℃; pH = 2.27)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL043
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: DaYouKen, Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: stream (Temp = 46.0-48.0℃; pH = 2.15)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL046
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Camiguium, Philippines
    Microhabitat: stone (Temp = 40.0℃; pH = 2.8)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL047
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Valencia, Philippines
    Microhabitat: hypolithic (Temp = 26.6℃; pH = 2.8)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL052
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Umi Jigoku, Japan
    Microhabitat: pool (Temp = 45.0℃; pH = 3)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL056
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Nishinokawara, Kusatsu, Japan
    Microhabitat: pool (Temp = 45.1℃; pH = 1.87)
  • Galdieria daedala
    Strain: THAL058
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: Jigokunma, Sukayu, Aomori, Japan
    Microhabitat: stream (Temp = 42.1°C; pH = 1.99)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL059
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Sukayu, Aomori, Japan
    Microhabitat: epilith (Temp = 33.1°C; pH = 0.4)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL060
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Sainokawara, Sukayu, Aomori, Japan
    Microhabitat: epilith (Temp = 42.2°C; pH = 0.4)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL064
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Nishinokawara, Kusatsu, Japan
    Microhabitat: pool (Temp = 45.1℃; pH = 1.87)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL065
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Sessyogara, Kusatsu, Japan
    Microhabitat: epilithic (Temp = 23.3℃; pH = 0.4)
  • Cyanidiococcus yangmingshanensis
    Strain: THAL066, NIES-4390
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: GenZiPeng, Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: air (Temp = no measurement; pH = no measurement)
  • Galdieria partita
    Strain: THAL069
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: GengZiPing, Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: soil with crystallized sulfate (Temp = 16.8°C; pH < 0.4)
  • Scenedesmus cf. quadricauda
    Strain: THAL072
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: MeiRenDong, XiaoLiuQiu, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: cave (Temp = 23.0℃; pH = 7.5)
  • Galdieria sulphuraria
    Strain: THAL079
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: Rotorua Hell’s Gate, New Zealand
    Microhabitat: air (Temp = no measurement; pH = no measurement)
  • Galdieria maxima
    Strain: THAL093
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: GengZiPing, Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: stream (Temp = 41.8℃; pH = 1.92)
  • Galdieria maxima
    Strain: THAL094
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: Yunokawa onsen ashiyu, Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan
    Microhabitat: stream (Temp = 46.0℃; pH = 1.72)
  • Galdieria maxima
    Strain: THAL095
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: GengZiPing, Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: stream (Temp = 41.8℃; pH = 1.92)
  • Galdieria maxima
    Strain: THAL096
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: Buckit Kasih, Manado, Indonesia
    Microhabitat: endolith (Temp = 31.3°C; pH = 0.4)
  • Galdieria maxima
    Strain: THAL097
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: Teshikaga, Hokkaido, Japan
    Microhabitat: stream (Temp = 40.0℃; pH = 2)
  • Cyanidium sp. OTU2
    Strain: THAL103
    Strain purity: The initial isolation with fungi contamination
    Site: GengZiPing, Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: air (Temp = no measurement; pH = no measurement)
  • Galdieria daedala
    Strain: THAL105
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: Mount Iwo, Akan Volcanic Complex, Hokkado, Japan
    Microhabitat: ditch (Temp = ca. 40℃; pH = 2.0)
  • Desmodesmus armatus
    Strain: JYCA037, THAL106
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Baisha Lake, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: artificial lake, freshwater, eutrophic
  • Desmodesmus pannonicus
    Strain: JYCA038, THAL107
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Baisha Lake, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: artificial lake, freshwater, eutrophic
  • Desmodesmus armatus
    Strain: JYCA039, THAL108
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Baisha Lake, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: artificial lake, freshwater, eutrophic
  • Desmodesmus communis
    Strain: JYCA040, THAL109
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Baisha Lake, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: artificial lake, freshwater, eutrophic
  • Desmodesmus armatus
    Strain: JYCA041, THAL110
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Baisha Lake, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: artificial lake, freshwater, eutrophic
  • Desmodesmus intermedius
    Strain: JYCA042, THAL111
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Baisha Lake, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: artificial lake, freshwater, eutrophic
  • Desmodesmus opoliensis
    Strain: JYCA043, THAL112
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Baisha Lake, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: artificial lake, freshwater, eutrophic
  • Desmodesmus communis
    Strain: JYCA044, THAL113
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Baisha Lake, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua City, Changhua County 500, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: artificial lake, freshwater, eutrophic
  • Desmodesmus armatus
    Strain: JYCA045, THAL114
    Strain purity: The initial isolation
    Site: Baisha Lake, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan
    Microhabitat: artificial lake, freshwater, eutrophic

II. Strains obtained from other culture centers

  • Galdieria maxima
    Strain: NIES2137
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: Nikko-Yumoto Hot spring, Nikko Tochigi, Japan
  • Galdieria sulphuraria
    Strain: SAG107.79
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: Lemonade springs, California, Sonoma Co, United States
  • Galdieria sulphuraria
    Strain: 074G
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: Java, Mt. Lawu fumaroles, Indonesia
  • Cyanidium caldarium
    Strain: NIES551
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: UNKNOWN
  • Galdieria phlegrea
    Strain: CCCryo128-00
    Strain purity: The first time purification
    Site: Soos, near Skalná Hájek, Districk of Cheb, Region of Karlovacky, Czech Republic
  • Cyanidioschyzon merolae
    Strain: 10D (NIES3377)
    Strain purity: the first time purification
    Site: A geothermal site at Sardegna in Italy